Proposal from Leif Bøgh-Sørensen
Submitted 2005-10-18 - Due to an error in the administration of the website not posted publicly before 2006-03-13.
Discussion closed, proposal accepted..
Descriptors in bold and italics are suggested new descriptors.
Two new terms are suggested as follows for the facet J of the LanguaL thesaurus:
PRESERVED BY STORAGE IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE [J0111]
PRESERVED BY STORAGE IN CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE
PRESERVED BY STORAGE IN INERT ATMOSPHERE [J0173]
PRESERVED BY STORAGE IN VACUUM [J0174]
In the present version of the LanguaL (version 2000), the precise unit operation, controlled atmosphere, involving strict control of atmosphere and temperature, is not available. As the method is common in the food industry as well as the retail chains, the term should be adopted with the following Additional Information: Storage of fruits and vegetables in an atmosphere in which the concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide (and often nitrogen) are different from those in air and at a low temperature. All three (four) factors are controlled at the desired levels. The process is also denominated CA Storage (synonym).
PRESERVED BY FILTRATION [J0121]
PRESERVED BY MICRO-FILTRATION
PRESERVED BY ULTRA-FILTRATION [J0157]
In the present version of the LanguaL (version 2000), the precise unit operation, micro-filtration, involving filtration with micro size pores is not available. As the method is common in the food industry as well as the retail chains, the term should be adopted with the following additional information: Microfiltration is used to remove undesirable micro-organisms and molecules. The membranes have pore diameters from 10 to 10000 nm.
For facet J the following editorial changes are suggested for existing terms:
PRESERVED BY REFRIGERATION OR FREEZING [J0142]
The descriptor should be changed to *PRESERVED BY CHILLING OR FREEZING* in accordance with the technical term.
The Scope Note should read: In order to comply with labelling requirements, it must be specified if it is chilling or freezing.
The Additional Information could read: Preserved by cooling and storage at low temperature (chilling at around 0-5°C, freezing at -18°C).
and in accordance with this, for
PRESERVED BY STORAGE IN REFRIGERATION [J0131]
The descriptor should be changed to *PRESERVED BY CHILLING*, the present descriptor name should be used as synonym.
The Additional Information should read: Preserved by cooling and keeping at a temperature between 30°F and 45°F (-1°C and 7°C). The temperature range depends on national legislation. The Scope Notes should read: Preservation methods that imply subsequent chilling are: *PASTEURIZED BY IRRADIATION*, *PASTEURIZED BY HEAT*, *PRESERVED BY CHEMICALS *, *PRESERVED BY FERMENTATION*, *SURFACE PASTEURIZED BY ULTRAVIOLET*, *PRESERVED BY STORAGE IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE*, *PRESERVED BY FILTRATION*. ‘Preserved by filtration’ is new. It may be discussed if ‘preserved by chemicals’ (and perhaps ‘preserved by fermentation’) should be maintained.
PRESERVED BY STORAGE IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE [J0111]
As modified atmosphere storage (and modified atmosphere packaging, MAP) may involve oxygen concentrations considerably above 20%, the Additional Information should read: Preserved by storage in an atmosphere in which the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide are different from those in air.
NATURALLY DRIED [J0141]
The Additional Information is not completely clear: '.. artificially dried to return to normal dry state.'?
PRESERVED BY ADDING SPICES OR EXTRACTS [J0153]
In the Additional Information ‘oxidation’ or ‘oxidative changes’ could be added to read: Preserved by adding spices or extracts (e.g. garlic, onion, horseradish, paprika) to suppress or inhibit undesirable micro-organisms, enzyme activity, or oxidative changes.
This is true in other cases as well, also in J0107 Refrigeration method, see the AI.
STERILIZED BY ULTRA HIGH PRESSURE [J0160]
The Additional Information should be changed: Sterilized by holding at a high pressure, normally greater than 1000 bar. Example: Fruit juice, jam.
As heat is not necessarily involved, the position in the tree structure should be changed. BT should be PRESERVATION METHOD [J0107], and not PRESERVED BY HEAT TREATMENT [J0120].
FROZEN BY REFRIGERATING AGENT [J0171]
The descriptor should be renamed to *CRYOGENIC FROZEN* and the present descriptor assigned as synonym.
The Additional Information could be: Frozen very rapidly by means of refrigerating agents such as liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide. Example: lobster frozen in liquid nitrogen.
PRESERVED BY STORAGE IN REFRIGERATION AGENT [J0172]
You cannot store foods in solid CO2 for a long time without freezing them. However, the Additional Information could be revised into: Preserved by storage in refrigerating agent, e.g. shipment of samples in insulated boxes with solid carbon dioxide.
Other comments concerning facet J:
In some cases, the Scope Notes starts with ‘Used when a product is preserved by the use …’, in other cases the start is ‘Preserved by ..’. More homogeneity is preferable.
What about other (modern) techniques such as ‘high-intensity light’, ‘pulsed electric fields’, and ‘ultrasound’. They are still mainly used in research and may never get widespread application.
It may be added to the Additional Information for PRESERVED BY ULTRA-FILTRATION [J0157] that the membranes have pores in the range 2-20 nm diameter (in order to distinguish from microfiltration, 10-10000 nm).
The use of units should follow international rules (SI units and other commonly used units): pressure in bar or Pascal, temperature in °C or °F.
In the tree-structure, Preserved by salting (J0103), Preserved by brining (J0137) and Preserved by dry salting (J0139) appear twice.
Comments concerning facets E, H and G:
CURED OR AGED [H0253]
There are 7 sub-items (H0288-H0294) and it would be nice if the computer was able to place them in correct order, i.e. starting with H0288 (or H0294), ending with H0294 (or H0288). The same is true for E0152, divided into pieces (<0.3, >1.5, 0.3-1.5), and for E 147 with four sub-items.
Several items are identical, at least they have nearly the same denomination. This includes:
- MonoSodiumGlutaminate added [H0590] under EU, MSG added [H0369) under USA,
- Acacia gum (gum Arabic) added [H0400] under EU, Gum Arabic added [H0380] under USA
- Carboxy methyl cellulose added [H0485] under EU, [H0374] under USA.
I do not know if sodium carboxy methyl cellulose [H0673] is the same as above?
- Microcrystalline cellulose added [H0577] in EU, the same [H0373] in USA
- Xanthan gum added [H0746] under EU, xanthan gum added [H0388] under USA
- Karaya gum added [H0551] under EU, the same [H0381] under USA
- Tragacanth added [H0735] under EU, Tragacanth gum added [H0382] under USA
- Guar gum added [H0539] under EU, the same [H0378] under USA
- Pectin added [H0607] under EU, the same [H0145] under USA.
PECTIN ADDED [H0145] is also placed under INGREDIENT ADDED [H0225].
- Agar added [H0408] under EU, the same [H0384] under USA
- Carrageenan added [H0487] under EU, the same [H0386] under USA
- Polydextrose added, H0314/H0613
- Riboflavin added, H0310/H0658
- Sorbitol added, H0303/H0710
- Mannitol added, H0304/H0573
- Xylitol added, H0305/H0747
- The group STARCH ADDED [H0146] comprising dextrin and modified starch, appear under CARVBOHYDRATE ADDED [H0209] and also under USA [H0371]
- Gelatin added [H0165], appears under Protein added [H0164] and also under USA
Carob bean gum added in USA [H0377], but is not mentioned in EU. Another name or status?
Carob bean [B1366] under hemicellulose producing plants [B1014] and under spice or flavour producing plants.
Carob coated or added [H0357], carob added [H0267] under [H0229]
Alginate added [H0385] in USA, Alginic acid [H0409] in EU ??
Dextran added [H0389] in USA, but not mentioned elsewhere in LanguaL. Another status?
Generally, for ‘X ADDED’, see above, there are no synonym, Scope Notes nor Additional Informations for items under EU, but at least often something like ‘used when X is added at any level’ under USA. Should a ‘harmonization’ be introduced? This could be that e.g. ‘carboxy methyl cellulose added’ has only one number? It is OK that it appears more than once.
Acacia gum = gum arabic in EU [H0400], but only gum arabic mentioned in USA [H0388]
Karaya gum has gum karaya as synonym in USA, not in EU
Tragacanth gum has gum tragacanth as synonym in USA, only tragacanth in EU
Water added [H0138] - a definition of single-strength standard (or single strength] would be desirable. - diluted to 50-99% of single strength [H0237] is vague, as there is legislation on ‘water added’ (often around 10% for meat products] in several countries.
Appearing more than once The group ‘Sugar or sugar syrup added’ [H0136], comprising 17 compounds, appear twice. Under SWEETENER ADDED [H0202] and under CARBOHYDRATE ADDED [H0209).
As mentioned above, see also the group *STARCH ADDED* and see *PECTIN ADDED*, *GELATINE ADDED*, etc. This system is probably good!
In facet G, G0042 is SCALDED OR BLANCHED, where SN=AI. In facet J, BLANCHED is J0175.
Comments concerning food additive classifications in facet A:
New system for Codex functional classes (before A362-451 from 1985, now in principle according to Codex Alimentarius General Requirements, volume 1A, second edition (section 5.3), revised 1999. FAO/WHO). The new classification is so close to the EU classification of food additives (3-4 differences) that it might be worthwhile only including on classification covering both classifications.
The following list shows the comparison of the older and the new CODEX classification of food additives:
A0362 ACID??, A0364 ALKALI, base?,
buffer?, A0380 BUFFERING AGENT
pH adjusting agent??
|A0363 and A0364 now in ACID/ACID REGULATOR|
|A0365||ANTIBLEACHING AGENT||Delete (Magnesium Carbonate only in 1985)|
|A0366||ANTIBROWNING AGENT||Delete (Potassium metabisulfite only in 1985)|
A0402 DRYING AGENT
A0403 DUSTING POWDER
A0437 RELEASE AGENT
|A0370||ANTIMOULD AND ANTITROPE AGENT||Delete (may be included in PRESERVATIVE)|
|A0371||ANTIOXIDANT||A0372 ANTIOXIDANT SYNERGIST, A0442 SEQUESTRANT|
|Now in ANTIOXIDANT|
|A0373||ANTIOXIDANTS SOLUBILIZER||Delete (only monoglyceride citrate in 1985)|
|A0374||ANTITROPE AGENT||Delete (Ca acetate&propionate in 1985) NB. ANTIROPE!!|
Delete (esters of glycerol and therm.oxidized soy bean
fatty esters in 1985)
|A0376||BINDER||Now under STABILIZER|
|A0377||Now in FLOUR TREATMENT AGENT|
|A0378||BODYING AGENT||BODYING AGENT now in THICKENER|
|A0379||BROWN SALT: NUTRIENT, DIETARY SUPPLEMENT||Delete (What is it? I cannot find it in FAO 1985)|
|A0381||BULKING AGENT||A0408 FILLER|
|A0382||CARBONATING AGENT||Delete (only CO2 in 1985)|
|A0383||CARRIER||Not included in 1999!! Reference? Perhaps unchanged??|
|A0384||CARRIER SOLVENT||Delete (but a number of substances in 1985)|
|A0385||CHEWING GUM BASE||Delete (talc only in 1985-chewing gum component?)|
|A0386||CLARIFYING AGENT||Delete (only polyvinylpyrrolidone in 1985)|
|A0387||CLOUD PRODUCING AGENT||Delete (only vegetable oils, brominated in 1985)|
|A0388||CLOUD PRODUCING AGENT IN NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES||Delete (only sucrose acetate isobutyrate in 1985)|
|A0389||COLLOIDAL STABILIZERS||Delete (only insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone in 1985)|
|A0390||COLOUR ADJUNCT||Delete (only magnesium hydroxide in 1985)|
|A0392||COLOUR RETENTION AGENT (CODEX) (why CODEX???)||A0391 COLOUR FIXATIVE, A0393 COLOUR STABILIZER|
|Axxx2||EMULSIFYING SALT||Axxx3 MELTING SALT (melding salt i Codex 1999), A0442 SEQUESTRANT|
|A0394||CONTAMINANT||Delete (is NOT included in 1985??) One more error??|
|A0395||DECOLOURIZING AGENT||Delete (only Carbon, activated in 1985)|
|A0396||DEFOAMING AGENT||Delete (only propylene glycol alginate in 85)|
|A0397||DENSITY ADJUSTING AGENT||Delete (only sucrose acetate isobutyrate in 85)|
|A0398||DIETARY SUPPLEMENT||Delete?? (Mg lactate&dibasic phosphate in 85)|
|A0399||DILUENT OF COLOUR AND OTHER FOOD ADDITIVES||Delete (only ethyl cellulose in 85)|
|DISPERSING AGENT now in 404|
|A0401||DOUGH CONDITIONER||Delete (or include in A0415 FLOUR TREATMENT AGENT??)|
|DRYING AGENT now in anticaking|
|DUSTING POWDER now in anticaking|
A0400 DISPERSING AGENT
A0450 WETTING AGENT
|A0405||EMULSION STABILIZER||Delete (only K phosphate in 85) but other ‘groups’ in 85!|
|A0406||ENZYME PREPARATION||Delete, although many enzymes in 1985|
|A0407||EXTRACTION SOLVENT||Delete (many solvents in 85)|
|A0408 is now in BULKING AGENT|
|A0409||FILTERING AID||Delete (only diatomaceous earth in 85)|
|A0410||FIRMING AGENT||FIRMING AGENT also under STABILIZER??|
|A0411||FLAVOUR ADJUNCT||Delete (only formic acid in 1985)|
Flavour modifier xx
|A0413||FLAVOURING AGENT||Delete, or include in A0412 (many compounds in 85)|
|A0414||FLAVOURS SOLUBILIZER||Delete (only monoglyceride citrate in 85)|
|A0415||FLOUR TREATMENT AGENT||
A0377 BLEACHING AGENT
Dough improver xx
Flour improver xx
Whipping agent xx
Aerating agent xx
(before called FOOD COLOUR)
|A0418||PRESERVATIVE (before called FOOD PRESERVATIVE)||
A0369 ANTIMICROBIAL PRESERVATIVE
Axxx4 ANTIMYCOTIC AGENT
Axxx5 BACTERIOPHAGE CONTROL AGENT
Chemosterilant/wine maturing agent??
Axxx6 DISINFECTION AGENT
|A0419||FORMULATION AGENT||Delete (I cannot find it in FAO 1985)|
|A0420||FORMULATION AID||Delete (only polydextroses A and N in 1985)|
|A0421||FREEZANT||Delete (only N2 in 1985)|
|A0422||FUMIGANT||Delete (only ethylene oxide in 1985)|
|A0423||FUNGICIDAL PRESERVATIVE||Delete (only Pimaricin in 85)|
|A0424||FUNGISTATIC AGENT||Delete (Ca sorbate, diphenyl, K Sorbate in 1985)|
A0430 MOISTURE RETAINING AGENT
Moisture/water retaining agent ??xx
A0450 WETTING AGENT?? See EMULSIFIER
A0440 SEALING AGENT
|A0427||GREEN: NUTRIENT, DIET SUPPLEMENT, ANTI-CAKING AGENT||Delete (I could not find it in FAO 1985)|
|LEAVENING AGENT||Now in RAISING AGENT|
|A0429||LIQUID FREEZANT||Delete (Only Dichlordifluormethane in 85)|
|A0430||MOISTURE RETAINING AGENT now in HUMECTANT|
|A0431||NEUTRALIZING AGENT||Delete (11 compounds in 1985)|
|A0432||NUTRIENT||Delete (only Magnesium Phosphate dibasic in 1985)|
|A0433||ODOUR REMOVING AGENT||Delete (only Carbon, activated vegetable?? (Food grade) in 85)|
|A0434||OXIDIZING AGENT||Delete (only K sorbate in 85)|
|A0435||PACKING GAS||Delete (CO2 and N2 in 85)|
|Axxx8||RAISING AGENT||A0428 LEAVENING AGENT|
|A0437||RELEASE AGENT now in ANTICAKING AGENT|
|A0438||RESIDUE||Delete (I cannot find it in FAO 1985)|
|A0439||SALT SUBSTITUTE||Delete (I cannot find it in FAO 1985)|
|A0440||SEALING AGENT now under GLAZING AGENT|
|A0441||SEASONING AGENT||Delete (fumarates, malates + KCl in 1985)|
|A0442||SEQUESTRANT now under ANTIOXIDANT|
A0410 FIRMING AGENT
Moisture/water retention agent (A0430? see HUMECTANT)
|A0444||SUSPENDING AGENT||Delete (only Na carboxymethyl cellulose in 1985)|
|A0445||SWEETENER (before called SWEETENING AGENT)||
|A0446||TABLETING AID||Delete (only ethyl cellulose (as in 399) in 1985|
|A0447||TASTE REMOVING AGENT||Delete (as 395 and 433)|
|A0448||Now under THICKENER|
|A0449||Now under THICKENER|
(may use A0449 which now is thickening agent??)
A0449 THICKENING AGENT
A0378 BODYING AGENT
|A0450||Now under EMULSIFIER (and HUMECTANT??)|
|A0451||YEAST FOOD||Delete (NH3Cl m.m. in 1985??)|