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Proposal from Jayne Ireland for Codex CCPR animal food sources

Submitted 2006-05-27

Discussion closed.


Descriptors in bold and italics are suggested new descriptors.



WHO GEMS/Food has asked for LanguaL indexing of GEMS/Food food list, which is now based upon the CODEX food definitions, i.e. CODEX Classification for foods and feeds. Some foods in the food list were not able to be indexed with LanguaL because certain food descriptions were unclear and/or LanguaL descriptors were lacking. The following descriptors are proposed for LanguaL facet B, Food Source.


Under FISH [B1222], create new terms for Codex CCPR:

Proposed term




<DICTION>Diadromous fish travel between salt and fresh water. Anadromous fish live in the sea mostly, breed in fresh water; the best-known are salmon, which hatch in small freshwater streams, go down to the sea and live there for several years, then return to the same streams where they were hatched, spawn, and die shortly thereafter. Salmon are capable of going hundreds of kilometers upriver, and humans must install fish ladders in dams to enable the salmon to get past. Catadromous fish live in fresh water, breed in the sea; the most remarkable are freshwater eels of genus Anguilla, whose larvae drift on the open ocean, sometimes for months or years, before travelling thousands of kilometres back to their original streams. Amphidromous fish move between fresh and salt water during some part of life cycle, but not for breeding. (



<DICTION>Potamodromous fish migrate within fresh water only. (

potamodromous fish


<DICTION>Oceanodromous fish migrate within salt water only (

oceanodromous fish

Another possibility, in order to avoid duplication of fish descriptors in systematic display, would be to place these 3 terms under Facet Z (adjunct characteristics)




For MARINE MAMMAL [B1122] : new AI

<DICTION>marine mammal is a mammal that is primarily ocean-dwelling or depends on the ocean for its food. Mammals originally evolved on land, but later marine mammals evolved to live back in the ocean. There are five groups of marine mammals:

(1) Order Sirenia: the manatee, dugong, and sea cow. (2) Order Carnivora, family Ursidae: the polar bear. (3) Order Carnivora, infrafamily Pinnipedia: the seal, sea lion, and walrus. (4) Order Carnivora, family Mustelidae: the Sea Otter and Marine Otter. (5) Order Cetacea: the whale, dolphin, and porpoise. (


Under MARINE MAMMAL [B1122], create new terms:


Proposed term




<SCIFAM>Dolphinidae <DICTION>Dolphins are aquatic mammals related to whales and porpoises… Any member of the families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea (oceanic and river dolphins). Porpoises (suborder Odontoceti, family Phocoenidae) are thus not dolphins in this sense. Orcas and some related species belong to the Delphinidae family and therefore qualify as dolphins, even though they are called whales in common language. There are almost 40 species of dolphin in 17 genera. They vary in size from 1.2 m (4 ft) and 40 kg (88 lb) (Maui's Dolphin), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and 10 tonnes (the Orca). However, the average length for most North American Species is 13.89 feet in length. Most species weigh about 50 to 200 kg (110 to 440 lb). They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid.  Bottlenose Dolphin is the most common and familiar species of dolphin.  (

bottlenose dolphin; humpback dolphin; spinner dolphin; tursiops truncatus ; stenella longirostris


<SCIFAM>Phocoenidae  <DICTION>The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. They are however distinct from dolphins, although the word "porpoise" is often used to refer to any small dolphin, especially in North America. A key difference is the shape of the teeth and of the head. Porpoises, divided into six species, live in all oceans, mostly near the shore. Probably best known is the Harbour Porpoise, which can be found across the Northern Hemisphere. (




For CRAPPIE [B1409] : new AI

<SCINAM>Pomoxis [Rafinesque, 1818] <DICTION>The species of this genus are known as crappies and are extremely popular game fish. The genus has two species the white and black crappie. Crappie of both species are sometimes referred to as papermouths, calico bass, and strawberry bass. Both species of crappie feed on minnows as adults. Both species spawn in the early spring when the water temperature nears 64 to 68 degrees. Crappie create a nest in fine silt or gravel, and the nests are often congregated in very high densities in shallow waters. (


For BLACK CRAPPIE [B1819] : new AI

<SCINAM>Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur, 1829) <DICTION> The black crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur, 1829), is very similar to P. annularis in size, shape, and habits, except that it is darker, with a pattern of black spots. The black crappie has 7-8 spines on its dorsal fin. The number of spines on the dorsal fin, is occasionally the only way to differeniate between a juvenile black crappie and a white crappie. The black crappie tends to prefer clearer water than the white crappie does. Its native range is uncertain, since it has been so widely transplanted, but it is presumed to be similar to the white crappie's. The black crappie is also known as the strawberry bass or Oswego bass. (




Other proposals:


Proposed term





CATTLE [B1161]

<SCINAM>Bos grunniens L. <DICTION>The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south central Asia. In Tibetan, the word yak refers only to the male of the species; a female is a dri or nak. In English, however, yak is usually used for both sexes. Wild yaks (Bos mutus) stand about two meters tall at the shoulder. Domestic yaks are about half that height. Both types have long shaggy hair to insulate them from the cold. Wild yaks can be either brown or black. Domesticated ones can also be white. Both males and females have horns. The word Yak is also used to describe an irritating or disagreeable individual. (

bos grunniens


DEER [B1583]

<SCINAM>Capreolus capreolus capreolus (L.) [Codex CCPR] <DICTION>There are two species of Roe Deer. The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus), a deer species of Europe and Asia Minor, and the Siberian Roe Deer (Capreolus pygargus),  found from the Ural Mountains to as far east as China and Siberia. The two species met at the Caucasus Mountains, with the European species occupying the southern flank of the mountain ranges and adjacent Asia Minor and the Siberian species occupying the northern flank of the mountain ranges. Within Europe, the European Roe Deer occurs in most areas, with the exception of northern Scandinavia and some of the islands, notably Iceland, Ireland, and the Mediterranean Sea islands; in the Mediterranean region it is largely confined to mountainous regions, and is absent or rare at low levels. The Roe Deer is a relatively small deer, with a body length of 95-135 cm, a shoulder height of 65-75 cm, and a weight of 15-30 kg. It has rather short, erect antlers and a reddish body with a grey face. Its hide is golden red in summer, darkening to brown or even black in winter, with lighter undersides and a white rump patch; the tail is very short (2-3 cm), and barely visible. Only the males have antlers, which are lost during winter, but which re-grow in time for the mating season. (

capreolus capreolus


CATTLE [B1161]

<SCINAM>Bos taurus indicus L. <DICTION>Zebus (Bos taurus indicus), sometimes known as 'nothing cattle', are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. Their scientific name was originally Bos indicus, but this name is now deemed invalid by ITIS, who classify the zebu under Bos taurus along with all other domestic cattle, and their aurochs ancestors, domesticated in India about 10,000 years ago. The ancient species of Bos nomadicus cattle or even gaur may have contributed to the development of the zebus. There are some 75 known breeds, split about evenly between African breeds and South Asian ones. The major Zebu cattle breeds of the world include Gyr, Guzerat, Indu-Brazilian, Nellore, Ongole and Brahman. Zebu have humps, large dewlaps and ears. They have more sweat glands than European cattle (Bos taurus). They handle hot, humid climates well and have pest resistances not seen in European cattle. (

bos indicus



<SCINAM>Aspledinotus grunniens; syn: Pomoxis annularis Raf. [Codex CCPR] <DICTION>The white crappie, Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque, 1818, is native throughout the eastern half of Canada and the United States, and has been widely introduced in the west as well. The white crappie is generally deep-bodied and silvery in color, with darker vertical stripes. The dorsal fin of the white crappie has six spines. The maximum recorded length for a white crappie in 53.0 cm (21 in), with a maximum weight of almost 2.35 kg (more than 5.18 lb); it can live as long as thirty years. This species prefers slower-moving water, whether a backwater of a small creek or a large lake. Some sources say the White Crappie will overpopulate in lakes less than 1000 acres (4 km≤). White Crappie often school around structure such as submerged trees. (

aspledinotus grunniens; pomoxis annularis



<SCIFAM>Percichthyidae <SCINAM> Maccullochella peeli <DICTON> The Murray Cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) is a large and striking predatory freshwater fish of the Maccullochella genus and the Percichthyidae family. It is an important and charismatic part of Australia's vertebrate wildlife and is found in the Murray-Darling river system in Australia. The Murray Cod is the largest wholly freshwater fish in Australia, and one of the largest wholly freshwater fish in the world. Other common names for Murray Cod include Cod, Greenfish and Goodoo. (

maccullochella peeli ; greenfish ; goodoo



<SCIFAM>Sparidae <SCINAM>Boops boops (L.)

boops boops



<SCINAM>Acanthopagrus australis (GŁnther, 1859) [Codex CCPR]

surf bream; acanthopagrus australis






Updated 2011-03-31.